The 24-year-old Fiorentina forward has been replaced by Angel Correa of Atletico Madrid.
“In training today, Nicolas Gonzalez tore a muscle and has been withdrawn from the list for the World Cup,” the AFA said in a statement.
Argentina coach Lionel Scaloni said on Wednesday after his team thrashed the UAE 5-0 in their final warmup game that “some players are not 100 percent, we have a few small problems”.
Gonzalez, 24, was one of the players who sat out the match in Abu Dhabi as Argentina extended their unbeaten run to 36 matches.
Argentina face Saudi Arabia on Tuesday in their first Group C match, followed by Mexico and Poland.